Essential Tips for Teaching Letter Formation to Young Learners

Teaching letter formation is more than just a step in learning to write; it’s a foundational skill that paves the way for literacy and communication. As parents and educators, we have the privilege and responsibility of guiding children through this exciting journey.

Father guiding a young child to form letters by holding the child's hand over a pencil on paper.

Learning how to write the letters of the alphabet is a foundational skill that sets the stage for successful reading and writing. Yet, for many young learners, it can feel like an uphill battle filled with wobbly lines, reversed letters, and frustration.

However, with the right guidance, tools, and a bit of fun, children can make tremendous strides in their handwriting journey. Mastering letter formation boosts children’s confidence in their writing abilities. When they can write clearly and legibly, they feel more competent and independent, encouraging a positive attitude toward learning and school.

This post discusses the emergent writing stage and explores the basics of teaching letter formation for little learners.

Ox & Owl Post Overview

Mastering proper letter formation is a game-changer for young learners, transforming scribbles into clear, confident handwriting.

Two important preskills of letter formation are print awareness and writing readiness.

Navigating challenges such as awkward pencil grips, letter reversals, and deciding which letters to teach first highlights the importance of having high-quality resources and helpful information that can act as a guide.

Explore our tools and practical strategies for tackling common challenges with letter formation to empower your little learner’s writing journey!

You’ll find visual aids to combat letter reversals, links to excellent letter discrimination activities, and more.

What is Letter Formation?

Letter formation is a foundational skill in early literacy that involves correctly shaping and writing letters. This important pre-literacy skill prepares your child for handwriting and written language. Good letter formation skills are needed for children to write legible written work and requires lots of opportunities for practice.

Skills Needed for Learning to Write Letters:

Understanding the correct way to form letters, including the sequence of stokes, the direction in which strokes should be made, and size of strokes. 
Hand-eye coordination and strong fine motor skills to correctly hold and guide the pencil or other writing tool to correctly form the letters and gain greater control and precision with writing.
Awareness of the spatial relationships between the letters, such as size and orientation, alongside other visual discrimination skills.
Understanding of uppercase versus lowercase letters and letter recognition skills.

Pre Writing Skills

Teaching letter formation requires a systematic approach that builds upon previously acquired skills. It is recommended to sequence activities and lessons in a way that progresses from basic pre-writing skills. This may involve learning to trace lines and shapes before trying more complex tasks, such as tracing uppercase letters.

By scaffolding learning experiences and providing opportunities for repeated practice, children are supported in developing fluency and confidence in their handwriting abilities.

Bright Beginnings

Emergent Writing Stage

An important stage of early childhood literacy is the emergent writing stage. This stage is when children, typically between the ages of 2 and 7, begin to learn about the symbolic nature of written language and develop their fine motor skills. Children in the emergent writing stage begin to learn the shapes and sounds of letters and may begin to engage in activities such as scribbling, drawing, and tracing shapes and letters.

Children develop the pincer grasp during the emergent writing stage, which is important for holding a writing utensil between the thumb and index finger. This is a crucial skill for writing and is necessary for letter formation.

Parents and teachers can support the development of the pincer grasp by providing children with various writing tools such as crayons, markers, and pencils and encouraging them to practice using them.

Connecting the Dots: Importance of Writing Readiness and Print Awareness in Teaching Letter Formation

Mastering the art of letter formation supports children’s ability to unlock the world of reading and writing with confidence and skill. Building this foundation involves nurturing the physical readiness and cognitive understanding required to shape letters effectively. Both print awareness and writing readiness are essential components in developing this understanding, working together to provide a comprehensive foundation for successful letter formation.

Let’s explore how these two related preskills contribute to early literacy development and how parents and educators can nurture them.

Writing Readiness

Writing readiness refers to the stage in early childhood when children are developing the necessary skills and understanding to begin writing. It involves:

  • Fine Motor Skills: Developing the muscle control needed to hold and manipulate writing tools like pencils, crayons, paints, and markers.
  • Hand-Eye Coordination: Coordinating visual input with hand movements to form letters and shapes.
  • Understanding of Writing Tools: Learning to use various writing instruments and paper.
  • Basic Letter Formation: Starting to understand how to form letters and numbers correctly.
  • Pre-Writing Exposure and Practice: Engaging in activities like drawing, tracing, and playing with playdough to strengthen the muscles and coordination needed for writing.

Print Awareness

Print awareness, on the other hand, refers to a child’s understanding of the forms and functions of written language. It involves:

  • Recognizing Print: Identifying letters, words, and other printed symbols in the environment (e.g., books, signs, cards, labels).
  • Understanding Print Concepts: Knowing that print carries meaning and understanding the basic concepts of how print works, such as reading from left to right and top to bottom.
  • Awareness of Print in Different Contexts: Recognizing that print can be found in various places and used for different purposes, like stories in books, messages inside cards, information on signs, or instructions on labels.
  • Relationship Between Spoken and Written Language: Understanding that written words correspond to spoken words and that print can be used to convey messages and stories.

Key Differences

While both writing readiness and print awareness are crucial components of early literacy, they focus on different aspects:

  • Writing Readiness is more about the physical and cognitive skills needed to begin writing.
  • Print Awareness is about understanding the nature and functions of print and recognizing its presence and role in the environment.

How They Interconnect

Despite their differences, writing readiness and print awareness are closely linked. Developing print awareness can enhance writing readiness and vice versa. For example:

  • A child who understands that print carries meaning (print awareness) will be more motivated to develop the skills needed to write (writing readiness).
  • Activities that promote writing readiness, such as tracing letters, can also reinforce print awareness by helping children recognize and understand the shapes and forms of letters.
Contains brief summary descriptions of print awareness and writing readiness. Contains graphics of a boy next to a stop sign and a girl writing letters in a notepad on her desk.
The development of print awareness promotes the development of writing readiness and vice versa.

Ways to Encourage Print Awareness and Writing Readiness

There are many activities to help build your little learner’s understanding that written symbols represent sounds and words to foster print awareness and strengthen your child’s writing readiness. Below are some ideas to draw inspiration from:

Story TimeReading books together helps children see and understand print, while also inspiring them to draw and write.
Pretend WritingDuring imaginative play, include activities that involve writing. For example, playing “restaurant” where children write down orders and create signage or “doctor” where they write down medical information and/or prescriptions.
Shopping ListsInvolve children in writing shopping lists. Let them add items to the list or draw pictures of the items they want.
Letters and CardsEncourage children to write letters or cards to family members and friends. This can include simple messages or drawings with labels.
Labelling Household Items or Naming Special Toys or StuffiesHelp children make labels for items around the house. This can include furniture and kitchen items, reinforcing the connection between words and objects. You could also write names or labels for favourite toys or stuffed animals.
Model Writing Demonstrate writing in everyday situations. Let children see you write lists, notes, and letters, and talk about what you are doing and why.
Provision of Writing/Drawing MaterialsProvide children with different types of writing tools and encourage them to experiment with each one. This will build their confidence and competence in using these tools to later form letters.

Vocabulary Quest

Word: Snuggle

Meaning: to get cozy with someone or something you love, like giving a big, warm hug or cuddling up with a soft blanket or stuffed animal.

All the penguins waddled into a group huddle, declaring it a “snuggle shuffle” to stay warm on the ice.

Curious Queries Corner?

Stir up your learner’s imagination and create some conversation and connection by asking an unusual question.

Would you rather have spaghetti hair you can eat anytime or rainbow fingers that change colors when you wiggle them?

Common Challenges

Where to Start with Teaching Children How to Write Letters

It can be difficult to know where to start when teaching letter formation. There are several challenges to navigate to ensure children learn how to form letters correctly.

Fine Motor Skill Development

Challenge: Developing the fine motor skills needed for precise control of writing tools.

Many children struggle with the pincer grasp, a critical component for holding writing utensils properly.

Order to Teach Letter Formation

Challenge: Confusion or issues knowing the correct order to teach letter formation can complicate the process.

Starting with tracing simple lines and shapes before teaching specific letters works towards building a solid foundation.

Letter Reversals and Inversions

Challenge: Children often reverse or invert letters, especially similar ones like ‘b’ and ‘d’ or ‘p’ and ‘q’.

There are tips and tricks to help mitigate these errors.

Engaging and Fun Activities

Challenge: Finding activities that are both engaging and educational can be difficult.

It’s important to find interactive and multi-sensory activities that capture children’s interest while reinforcing proper letter formation.

Proper Stroke Patterns

Challenge: Teaching the correct stroke patterns for letter formation is essential but requires many different skillsets and lots of practice and guidance.

Diverse learning paces and development also mean that some children may grasp letter formation quickly, while others require more time and individualized instruction.

By understanding and addressing these challenges with creative and engaging solutions, children can develop strong letter formation skills, setting them on the path to literacy success.

Literacy Toolbox

Teaching letter formation can be tricky, but don’t worry—we’ve got you covered! In this section, we’ll dive into some practical and fun solutions for the aforementioned common hurdles children can come up against when learning to form letters confidently and correctly.

With these handy tools and strategies, you’ll be well-equipped to help your child or student master letter formation and kickstart their early literacy journey!

Tools for Fine Motor Skill Development

Engage little learners in activities that strengthen their fine motor skills and help build their pincer grasp, such as playing with playdough, threading beads or hard noodles, or using tweezers to pick up small objects as part of a sensory bin activity.

Activities involving pinching, pulling, pressing, and squeezing are especially useful for developing and strengthening children’s pincer grasp. These fun, hands-on activities help build the muscle strength and coordination needed for writing.

Is your child ready to master their pincer grasp? Find our favourite fine motor-building activities designed to support their development! Click the link below to explore more information and start your journey towards enhancing these important developmental skills.

The sequence for teaching letter formation is influenced by the motor skills required to write letters. For example, take the lowercase letters ‘c’, ‘o’, ‘a’ or the uppercase letters ‘F’ and ‘E”; these might be taught consecutively to help children develop the motor memory for those patterns as they have similar stroke patterns.

When teaching children to write letters, we often begin with capital letters of the alphabet because the stroke patterns are easier to make. Uppercase letters are easier for children to master because these letters are less visually complex and less likely to get reversed (such as flipping lowercase b to d) or inversed (such as flipping lowercase u to n). Also, capital letters all start at the top line, unlike lowercase letters with several different starting places.


Teach uppercase (capital) letters with straight vertical and horizontal lines such as T, H, F, E, and L first.


Next, teach uppercase letters with straight and curved lines, such as P, D, G, J, and B, alongside uppercase letters with only curves, such as O, C, and U.


Lastly, teach uppercase letters containing diagonal lines.
Diagonal lines are the most developmentally difficult letters for children to master. These include letters such as K, M, N, W, V, and A.

Ox & Owl Literacy Alphabet Parade

Letter Formation Practice
Uppercase Letters First

I, T, H,
F, D, O, P, E,
L, U, C, B, R, G,
J, S, Q, V,
Z, M, A, X,
W, N, K, Y

Lowercase Letters Second

l, t, i, p, u,
c, o, p, s, v, x, z, w,
h, n, m, r, b,
a, d, g, q, j
e, f, k, y

If you move to lowercase letters too soon, there can be greater confusion, and these patterns or mixups can be quite difficult for children to unlearn. The next section has some visual aids to help children with common letter confusions.

Letter reversals are like unexpected plot twists in a storybook—surprising, sometimes amusing, and at times perplexing. Many young learners mix up letters like ‘b’ and ‘d’ or ‘p’ and ‘q’, which can keep parents and educators on their toes.

However, it’s not unusual to see letter confusion up until 7-8 years of age, this is because proper letter formation involves a host of skillsets to master and these take time to develop. Doing activities to build letter discrimination can be a great starting place to help build these skills.

With patient guidance, effective strategies, and gentle reminders, we can transform these moments into engaging challenges that lead to confident writing adventures.

One strategy is to use visual aids and mnemonics to help differentiate between challenging letters that can often get reversed, such as lowercase ‘b’ and ‘d’, or inversed, such as ‘m’ and ‘w’.

Below are some visual aids you can use to help avoid confusion with commonly confused letters.

Banishing ‘b’ and ‘d’ Confusion: Top Tricks

Start with the bat shape (the straight vertical line from top to bottom) followed by the ball shape (the curve at the bottom). Did you notice the words bat and ball both start with the letter sound /b/?

This visualization technique is a great way for children to remember the shape and order of strokes to form the lowercase ‘b’.

The straight vertical line on the right of the letter ‘b’ is similar to the frame of a bed, and the straight vertical line on the letter ‘d’ on the opposite side (left side) is like the foot of the bed.

Get your little one to physically make these hand shapes (which are the American Sign Language (ASL) letter shapes) to help them visualize the bed.

When writing ‘b’ and ‘d’, start with the picture you see. For the lowercase letter ‘b’, start with the bat, drawing a line from top to bottom first. For the lowercase letter ‘d’, start with the dolphin diving, drawing the curved line first.

Through consistent motor repetition in forming the letters, children can better distinguish these letters apart and write the correct letter they mean to write.

Upside-Down Letters: Visual Aids to Conquer Inversions

Struggling with letter reversals and inversions? Click the link below for practical tips, more visual aids, and engaging activities to help your child differentiate letters and avoid common pitfalls.

Learning to handwrite takes consistent practice…but who wants to do boring worksheets that only use repetition as the main learning method to practice this art? Not any young learner we know. It takes more effort to make letter formation interesting and inviting for our little ones, but this effort plays a long game and is well worth it!

Be encouraged to incorporate hands-on sensory activities such as sand tracing, finger painting, and making and decorating letter-shaped cookies. These activities make learning fun and interactive, keeping children motivated and interested in practicing their letters.

Having a variety of activities that meet different learning styles is something to keep in mind when choosing letter formation activities. You can use letter formation rhymes for auditory input, sensory activities like tracing sandpaper letters or forming letters in colored shaving cream for kinesthetic input, and visual aides and examples, including videos, for visual input.

You might combine some of these together to create truly multi-sensory learning experiences.

Making the proper stoke patterns to form letters correctly is a steep learning curve for our little learners. For this reason, it helps to provide clear, step-by-step instructions and demonstrations. You’ll want to use developmentally appropriate letter tracing activities, guided hand movements, and letter formation rhymes and games. Consistent reinforcement of the correct stroke order will help children internalize the proper patterns.

Remember that when writing the English alphabet, stroke patterns should always go from top to bottom and right to left. It’s important for children to learn to make the proper stroke patterns as this helps them write the English language more efficiently, resulting in better-formed letters and, later on, faster and overall neater writing.

Dive Deeper into Print Awareness

Print awareness is a vital early literacy skill that helps children understand how written language works. Our detailed blog post on this subject explores various engaging activities and practical strategies to nurture print awareness in young learners.

Click to learn more and get inspired with ideas to support your little one(s) concept of print as a means of capturing and relaying information.

Get Pincer Grasp Building Activities

Children need to develop their fine motor skills, including the all-important pincer grasp, to be able to master forming letters.

Discover our favourite activities for helping little ones develop their fine motor abilities by clicking the link below.

It’s a fun world of discovery!

Key OOliteracy Takeaways

  • Letter formation refers to the process of correctly writing or shaping letters of the alphabet using proper strokes and sequences to form letters correctly. Mastering letter formation is fundamental to developing clear and readable writing skills.
  • Before beginning letter formation practice, children should develop both print awareness and writing readiness skills. While closely related, these skills are distinct yet crucial for fostering motivation in learning to write and practicing the formation of letters to create words.
  • It can be difficult to know where to start when it comes to teaching letter formation and how to mitigate common issues around fine motor skill development, letter reversals, and learner engagement/motivation. Ox and Owl Literacy provides information and insight, tools, and resources to help parents and educators navigate teaching letter formation and other letter knowledge skills with confidence.

Did You Know?

Did you know there are five letter knowledge components in preschool and kindergarten literacy instruction? Letter formation skills are one of these five components. All five are important skills that need to be taught and practiced to help young learners develop reading and writing readiness.

Five Components of Letter Knowledge:

Letter Recognition





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I’m happy you’re here!

Hi, I’m Julie, the passionate creator of Ox & Owl Literacy. I enjoy empowering families and educators with wonderful resources to inspire fun, imaginative, and joyful learning opportunities for young kiddos.  You’ll find lots of recommended books, reading resources, and creative learning activities on this site aiming to help children fall in love with language, books, reading, and the transformational power of stories.

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